In BCE, facing a military attack from the two neighboring tribes of the Aequi and the Sabines, the Roman Senate took a drastic measure, reserved for the direst of circumstances: they appointed a dictator, who would single-handedly lead the state in this time of trouble. As the Roman historian Livy tells it, Cincinnatusthe senator who was appointed dictator, received the news while working on his farm.
Abandoning the plow, he immediately rushed to join the army, which he then led to a swift and brilliant victory. Then something astonishing happened: Cincinnatus resigned his extraordinary powers and returned to his farm. For the remainder of the Roman Republic, and well into the Imperial Period, Cincinnatus continued to be seen as the quintessential Roman cultural hero and model of virtue: an aristocratic man who was a talented soldier, general, and politician who put the interests of Rome first, above his own.
But something happened to give rise to a rather different sort of cultural hero by the Late Roman Empire. In CE, a young noblewoman and her slave were executed in Carthage, thrown into the arena with the lions. Their crime? A stubborn faith: the belief that a Jewish man who lived in Judaea a century earlier was the son of God who had died on the cross and rose again.
Eager to emulate his suffering in order to win eternal life with their God, the two women, Perpetua and Felicitygave up a life of relative comfort and the chance to raise their babies—indeed, Felicity gave birth in prison mere hours before her execution! They were not the only ones. Stories of martyrs abound in the Later Roman Empire and were told repeatedly by Christians, thus perpetuating the status of these martyrs as the new cultural heroes.
But far from repelling others from imitating their example, these stories, rather, encouraged the rise of more willing martyrs to follow their suit. As a result of the spread of Christianity, therefore, the Roman cultural heroes of Late Antiquity were a far cry from Cincinnatus. Instead of aristocratic generals and politicians, they were nursing mothers and even slave-women who chose to die a humiliating and painful death for their faith and its promise of an eternal reward.
The story of the Roman world from the foundation of the city of Rome and to the fall of the Roman Empire in the West is, overall, a tale of two different transformations.
The first of these is the dramatic transformation in cultural values and beliefs, a glimpse of which is reflected in the two stories above. The second is a similarly dramatic geographical transformation, which also brought about drastic clashes of cultures and a variety of changes throughout the entire Mediterranean world and beyond, that is, the transformation of a small village on the Tiber into one of the largest empires in all of world history, followed by a collapse of a part of that Empire, but a collapse from whose ashes arose what we now know as Europe.
Before it became the capital of a major empire, Rome was a village built on seven hills sprawling around the river Tiber. Set sixteen miles inland, the original settlement had distinct strategic advantages: it was immune to attacks from the sea, and the seven hills on which the city was built were easy to fortify. The Tiber, although marshy and prone to flooding, furthermore, provided the ability to trade with the neighboring city-states.
By the mid-Republic, requiring access to the sea, the Romans built a harbor at Ostiawhich grew to become a full-fledged commercial arm of Rome as a result. Wheeled vehicles were prohibited inside the city of Rome during the day, in order to protect the heavy pedestrian traffic. Thus at night, carts from Ostia poured into Rome, delivering food and other goods for sale from all over Italy and the Empire.
One of the most surprising aspects of the history of early Rome is that, despite constant threats from its more powerful neighbors, it was never swallowed by them.
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Likewise, the topography of Italy proper, with the Alps and the Appenines providing natural defenses in the north, hampered invasions from the outside. Indeed, the most famous example of an invasion from the north, that of Hannibal during the Second Punic War, is a case in point: he selected that challenging route through the Alps in order to surprise the Romans, and it proved even more destructive for his forces than he had anticipated.
As Rome built a Mediterranean empire, the city itself grew increasingly larger, reaching a population of one million by CE. While Italy boasted fertile farmlands, feeding the city of Rome became a challenge that required the resources of the larger empire, and Egypt in particular became known as the breadbasket of Rome.
As a result, emperors were especially cautious to control access to Egypt by prominent senators and other politicians, for fear of losing control over this key area of the Empire. During the rule of the emperor Trajan in the early second century CE, the Roman Empire reached its greatest extent, stretching to Britain in the west, slightly beyond the Rhine and Danube river in the north, and including much of the Near East and north Africa.
The natural frontier offered by the Rhine and Danube rivers made it difficult for the Romans to maintain control over the ter-ritories on the other side of them. Struggling to fight off the warrior tribes in northern Britain, two second-century CE emperors— Hadrian, and later on Antoninus Pius—built successive walls, which attempted to separate the un-Romanized tribes from the territory under Roman control.
When the Roman Empire consisted of Italy alone, the location of Rome in the middle of the Italian peninsula was the ideal location for the capital. Once, however, the empire became a Mediterranean empire that controlled areas far in all directions, the location of Rome was a great distance from all the problem frontiers.
As a result, emperors over the course of the second and third centuries spent increasingly less time in Rome. The large area encompassed by the empire required a sophisticated infrastructure of roads and sea routes, and the Romans provided both.Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system.
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With the IOTA Foundation officially being set up, we intend to take this research to the next level and will start sharing more regular updates from the IOTA Research Team. This work on the simulation framework has been lead by Alon and I on two different fronts.
In this blog post, with the accompanying paper, we will share some of the first results gathered from these simulations. The simulation software itself is currently being prepared for a public release. Learn moreGet updatesGet updates. Minnesota returns to non-conference play Saturday with its first SEC road game in 16 seasons. Nebraska opened up a 16-point lead early in the second half en route to a 78-68 win over No. Nate Mason scored a season-high 26 points as No.The Aeneid by Virgil - Book 6
Location Bud Walton Arena - Fayetteville, Ark. Tickets Click Here TV SEC Network Live Video WatchESPN Radio KFAN 100.
Arkansas: Third Meeting (1-1)Minnesota vs. The game is the second of a home-and-home series that began last year in Minneapolis, an 85-71 Gopher win. It is Minnesota's first road game at an SEC school since Dec. Murphy has posted 10 double-doubles (highest in the country) thus far this season, and the three-time Big Ten Player of the Week became the first Gopher to win the award in back-to-back weeks.The aim of this guide is to complement the forum board. Hopefully it will mean more competitions posted, and more prizes for MoneySavers.
Competitions are a cheap chance for companies to promote their wares. Add to that the chance to collect valuable info on potential customers, and it's easy to see why these contests abound. This way, you're statistically more likely to win big. Depending on your work ethic and luck, you could furnish your house, travel the world and boost your bank balance.
Often all entering involves is filling in an online form or sending a postcard, sometimes answering a question or tie-breaker. Plus your gains are tax-free, so unlike other ways to boost your income, the taxman won't get any of it. Unlike other money-makers, such as Survey Sites, eBay Selling, Facebook Selling, Earning Cash Online and other ways to Boost Your Income, the rewards aren't guaranteed.
Think of comping as a potentially rewarding hobby, rather than a potentially underpaid job. The spirit of comping is it's a bit of fun, rather than a dead cert money-spinner. Hours can be long, payouts poor and your bum certainly won't thank you for sitting at the computer all day.
That said, for those who catch the bug, these become minor details as they enjoy the spirit of community on the board, and hopefully wins flooding in. It's also fun to drool over all those lavish prizes. While we don't want to give anyone the impression that comping is a surefire way to make cash, it is possible to win big. All she had to do was answer why they deserved to win the wedding. Laura's story is far from a one-off.
Needless to say I'm absolutely stunned and beginning to wonder where on earth all these prizes are going to go. A lovely problem to have though. It gives me a fantastic lifestyle and I've been able to do things that I would never have been able to otherwise.